Much has been written about the rise of automation, and what it means for the future of employment.

There’s mounting evidence that workers in wide swaths of job categories will be replaced, and the most vulnerable jobs are ones that require little education and offer low pay. And while it’s certainly true that positions like surgeons and corporate executives are the most insulated from the robot takeover, the connection between pay, education, and automation isn’t always predictable.

Bloomberg Businessweek combined Bureau of Labor Statistics data with a study by Oxford professors Carl Frey and Michael Osborne—who ranked 702 professions by their likelihood of being automated (pdf)—to plot the relationship between pay, education required, and vulnerability. While the general trend is clear—the best protection against automation is a job that requires a…